Todos nos hemos encontrado con sectores defectuosos en nuestro disco duro alguna vez. ¿Sectores defectuosos? ¿Cómo? Sí, has leído bien. Un problema común de nuestros ordenadores que hoy vamos a tratar a fondo.

¿Qué es un sector defectuoso? Sin duda alguna es la primera pregunta que deberemos hacernos. Tras conocer a fondo cómo funcionan, le aplicaremos la medicina y te diremos cómo arreglar los sectores defectuosos que hayamos encontrado. Un proceso sencillo y con el que conseguiremos un mantenimiento para que todo siga funcionando como el primer día. ¿Cómo hacerlo? Sigue leyendo.

¿Qué es un sector defectuoso?

Los discos duros no funcionan secuencialmente, si no que de forma completamente transparente al usuario crean pequeños ‘grupos’ de bits. Estos grupos forman los llamados sectores, en los que el sistema se encarga de guardar los datos.

Sectores HddUn diagrama de lo que es un sector dentro del disco duro (imagen vía MS Exchange)

Cuando el disco duro intenta leer o escribir en alguno de estos sectores y recibe un error como ‘respuesta’ entonces se dice que el sector está defectuoso. En otras palabras, hay algo que no funciona. ¿El qué? Existen dos tipos de fallos:

  • Fallo lógico: cuando es un error de software. Generalmente es porque se pierde la forma de acceder al sector (o se proporciona una dirección errónea), de forma que ésta queda inutilizada.
  • Fallo físico: cuando es un error de hardware. Es el más grave de todos ya que se pierde una parte del almacenamiento; típicamente motivado por un rayón en el disco debido a un golpe brusco.

Ambos pueden producir la pérdida de información, el primero tiene una fácil solución y el segundo ni siquiera la tiene. Sigamos, ¿cómo saber si mi disco duro tiene sectores defectuosos?

Cómo saber si mi disco duro tiene sectores defectuosos

Desde tiempos inmemoriables Microsoft desarrolló una aplicación denominada Check Disk (chkdsk), que permite ejecutando el programa monitorizar un estado sencillo del disco. Entre otras funcionalidades comprueba si existen sectores defectuosos (en inglés bad sectores).

Aunque lo natural sería ejecutar chkdsk mediante línea de comandos (cmd.exe), Microsoft Windows dispone de una interfaz gráfica para comprobar los errores del disco de forma mucho más natural e intuitiva. Según la versión que estemos ejecutando aparecerán de una u otra forma, pero la finalidad es la misma:

  1. Abrir el Explorador de Archivos
  2. Click derecho en la unidad que queramos analizar (por ejemplo Disco Local C:) -> Propiedades
  3. Click en la pestaña Herramientas
  4. Click en Comprobar
Check Disk Windows 8
Check Disk Windows 8

Y seguiremos los pasos indicados por el programa.

Cómo ‘arreglar’ los sectores defectuosos

Antes de nada hay que hablar de la tecnología S.M.A.R.T., integrada en la práctica totalidad de discos duros actuales y que permite que el propio disco se monitorice a si mismo en busca de posibles errores de diversa índole. En caso de encontrarlos, según sea la tipología del error, incluso se ‘autoarreglará’ sin necesidad de notificar al usuario, de forma completamente automática y transparente. No obstante, es posible que S.M.A.R.T. no detecte todos los errores, para lo cual existen estas otras alternativas. Sigamos.

Si Windows ha encontrado errores, la misma ventana donde aparece la información nos indicará cómo proceder para solucionar el problema. Éste es el modo sencillo, rápido y directo para hacerlo, e igualmente que para Windows existen opciones para Linux y también para OS X.

Otra opción para solucionar estos sectores defectuosos es mucho más agresiva e implica lo que se denomina como llenar a ceros o formato completo, y que consistiría en formatear la unidad de una forma mucho más profunda a la habitual.

El más sencillo proceso de ‘formateo’ de un disco duro consiste en eliminar las direcciones de los sectores, donde se almacena la información. De esta forma se pierde el acceso, pero los datos siguen ahí; formatear llenando o escribiendo ceros, o formateo a bajo nivel consiste en resetear todos los bits del disco duro, desde el primero hasta el último, e incluye eliminar las direcciones de memoria y cualquier rastro que pueda quedar. Incluye la recuperación de los sectores defectuosos y puede realizarse a través de herramientas como Lowvel o HDD LLF, entre otras muchas (¡muchísimas!) disponibles.

Atola SsCaptura de pantalla de Atola Insight, una herramienta de pago ya en desuso.

Lo malo, que al formatear el disco deberemos reinstalar el sistema y todas las aplicaciones, partiendo de cero. Es, como decíamos, la solución más agresiva pero también la que mejor nos asegura el buen funcionamiento del disco.

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